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SALIM ALI’S FRUIT BAT/Behaviour, Distribution, Habitat, Size, Weight, IUCN stetus

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DESCRIPTION: The Salim Ali’s Fruit Bat has short, soft and dark brown dorsal fur. The fur is sparse on the belly and throat. There is a marked grizzling on the shoulders, back, and between the eyes and cheek. The lower back, elbows and forearms are chestnut. Its ears are brown ovals without a hairy or pale fringe. It is tailless externally, thus distinguishing it from the more common Greater Short- nosed Fruit Bat.

BEHAVIOUR: Partial to eating Ficus racemosa figs.

DISTRIBUTION: Periyar TR, Kerala, and Kalakkad–Mundanthurai TR and Kardana Coffee Estate, High Wavy Mountains, in Tamil Nadu.

HABITAT: Cave dwelling in montane, broadleaved forests interspersed with plantations.

Size: 10–11 cm,

IUCN Status: Endangered 

DUSKY-STRIPED SQUIRREL/Behaviour, Distribution, Habitat, Size, Weight, IUCN stetus

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DESCRIPTION: Smallest, thicker furred and darker than the two commensal species, F. sublineatus has three pale stripes that are rather dull and not prominent, and lost in its longer fur. It does not have a red line in the tail. F.s. sublineatus has narrower dark stripes between the pale mid-dorsal and lateral stripes.

BEHAVIOUR: Unknown. It is known to be a prey of the green viper.

DISTRIBUTION: Western Ghats in Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu.

HABITAT: Riparian habitats in tropical evergreen and moist deciduous forests.

Size: 14–14 cm, Tail Lenth: 15–16 cm, 

Wt: 99–117.5 g

IUCN Status: Vulnerable

PORCUPINE/Behaviour, Distribution, Habitat, Size, Weight, IUCN stetus

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DESCRIPTION: It can be told apart from the Indian Porcupine by its shorter dorsal crest small tail instead of a visible tail with white quills; thinner body quills, and smaller size. Its dorsal quills have one dark band while the Indian Porcupine’s have more than two. H.b. subcristata is a larger subspecies with more developed caudal rattling quills.

BEHAVIOUR: Does not rattle tail quills as much as the H. indica.

DISTRIBUTION: H.b. hodgsonii: Arunachal Pradesh, Assam. Meghalaya, Sikkim, West Bengal; H.b. subcristata: Manipur, Mizoram and Nagaland.

HABITAT: It inhabits forests and forest fringes having rocky outcrops.

Size: 45–75 cm, 

Wt: 8 kg

IUCN Status: Least Concern


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Description: Black and white, marked with a pale yellow and red and blue spot at the hindwing on white spots. The body is also black and white striped, having mirrored 'S' type antennae from the corner of its eyes. the tip end of the abdomen is darker than rest portion of the abdomen. commonly seemed to flies among low bushes in a wavy manner and also seemed to lick minerals from wet patches of soil.

Distribution: Widespread Resident in India.

Habitat: Commonly seen across all habitats during summer, rain and autumn season.

Size: 80-100mm

IUCN Status: Vulnerable

BLANFORD’S FRUIT BAT/Behaviour, Distribution, Habitat, Size, Weight, IUCN stetus

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DESCRIPTION: A small, uniformly brown bat which superficially resembles Cynopterus and Megaerops, the Blanford’s Fruit Bat differs in not having a tail and from the latter in having pale fringes on its brown ears, two buff spots on its chin, and unique triangular incisors (visible only with the bat in hand). The fur is long and extends onto the arms and legs.
DISTRIBUTION: Uttarakhand, West Bengal, Sikkim, Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh.
HABITAT: Lower montane bamboo forests; may also frequent pine and oak forests.

Size: 5.1–8.9 cm,

IUCN Status: Least Concern

WHITE BROWED WAGTAIL /Behaviour, Distribution, Habitat, Size, Weight, IUCN stetus

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Description: Black and white birds are a common sight next to most water bodies. This boldly patterned bird has overall black plumage with a prominent white eyebrow, belly, wing bars and tail. It usually occurs in pairs and it extremely vocal through the day, with the loud high pitched call audible over long distances. It is sometimes seen perched on wires or fence posts around water bodies. diet- comprises insects and vegetable matter.

Distribution: Widespread Resident in India

Habitat: Bank of rivers, pools, lakes, canals and irrigation barrages.

Size: 21 cm

IUCN Status: Least Concern.

Oriental White Eye /Behaviour, Distribution, Habitat, Size, Weight, IUCN stetus

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Oriental White Eye
Description: The greenish-yellow to bright yellow back, throat and vent. white to greyish underside, white eye-ring, black bill and lores and square tail characterise these birds. feeding on berries, nectar, flowers and insects

Distribution: Widespread Resident in India

Habitat: This bird can be encountered in almost all habitats, they move around small to large flocks. Oriental white-eye sometimes occur in mixed flocks

Size: 10cm

IUCN Status: Least Concern

TIGER/Behaviour, Distribution, Habitat, Size, Weight, IUCN stetus

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DESCRIPTION: Undoubtedly the most charismatic animal of India, the majestic tiger has a tawny orange coat patterned with broad black stripes. The stripe patterns on the body are unique and each individual can be identified by this pattern. The underparts of the tiger are pure white as are patches around its eyes and on its cheeks. The back of each ear is black with a winking white spot on it as well. The eyes are large, round and forward-facing, a characteristic that helps the animal in the forest catch its prey but captivates the world instantly, giving it a charismatic mega-fauna status that rivals none. The ears are rounded, small and placed apart on the top of the head. The whiskers are long and are important for sensing. The nose pad is flesh coloured. The whole head is set almost onto the body with a short muscled neck that combines with its long canines to bite long and deep into the prey. Its dentition is well suited to its position as the top carnivore of the Indian forests. The tiger’s hind limbs are much longer than the forelimbs, but the latter are thick and powerful with a large paw that is built to strike down large prey. It tail is long, slim and banded with black rings almost to the tip. It possesses scent glands in the anal region, toes, tail region and cheeks, as in most cats. Tigers have high variability in coat colour, and across the globe and even in India some variation is seen in the intensity of the orange colour or the darkness of the coat. The same is true of body size, with some regions reporting larger animals on the whole than others. Melanistic and white tigers are the best-known coat variations in the tiger in India, but this is not due to albinism as is popularly believed. The White Tiger which originated around Rewa in Madhya Pradesh was caused by a recessive gene that inhibits yellow and red pigments while allowing black pigments to be exhibited. In nature, this freak does not survive but its immense popularity in captivity has led people to think at times, erroneously, that this is a separate species. Similarly, tigers around Odisha tend to have a rare colour variation known as pseudo-melanism. The black stripes appear very thick and the tawny colour is not seen as much through the black pattern.

BEHAVIOUR: The tiger prefers to hunt large deer, which in Indian conditions means the Sambar, where available. Quite adaptable, it can survive on smaller prey such as Wild Pig, Spotted Deer or even fish in the mangroves. However, it is presumed that tigers evolved because of their unique nature of taking large prey more than 30 kg in weight. Large animals such as rhinos, elephant calves and even bull Gaur are taken opportunistically. Tigers hunt nocturnally as a habit, but in certain sanctuaries have turned diurnal due to being used to tourist presence. They stalk their prey through high grass cover or undergrowth and, with one sudden onrush, take them down with a swipe at the neck, followed by a swift bite to the jugular. Tigers tend to eat the prey from the backside up as opposed to leopards, which eat belly up; this can be a useful clue to identifying the predator responsible for killing prey. Tigers may attack humans if prey is unavailable, or if the tiger is old or injured. Tigers with worn-out teeth (due to old age) or injury to the forepaws such as a porcupine-quill-caused wound are known to kill and eat humans. This behaviour has earned it the fearsome title of man-eater, although other mammals such as the leopard, the bear or the elephant take far more human lives in India.

DISTRIBUTION: Today, shrinking tiger numbers and habitat are major conservation issues globally and occupy most of the conservation space in India. It is estimated that there are only 1,600-odd tigers left in India, comprising about per cent of the world’s population. In India, the tiger is distributed along the Terai foothills of the Himalayas, in north-east India, in central India (especially around the central highlands and Satpura–Maikal landscape including Vidarbha), the Eastern Ghats and the Western Ghats including the Nilgiri plateau. The states of Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Bihar, West Bengal Arunachal Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh have large tiger habitats left while those in Assam, Karnataka, Uttarakhand and Rajasthan support large numbers in protected areas.

HABITAT: Tigers are widely distributed within their range in tropical dry and moist deciduous forests (a key habitat for the species), evergreen forests and riverine forests. In the Sunderbans, it is adapted to a mangrove habitat, in the Terai it frequents a moist deciduous–grassland–riverine habitat complex, and in higher altitudes such as Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh, it inhabits coniferous, oak and rhododendron forests. Tigers can exist in dry scrub and semi-arid areas of Rajasthan just as well as above the treeline in Arunachal Pradesh, but these constitute suboptimal habitats.

Size: 270–310 cm (male); 240–265 cm (female),

Wt: 175–260 kg (male);100–160 kg (female)

IUCN Status: Endangered


LESSER MOUSE-TAILED BAT/Behaviour, Distribution, Habitat, Size, Weight, IUCN stetus

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DESCRIPTION: A smaller version of the Greater Mouse-tailed Bat, the Lesser Mouse-tailed Bat has a relatively longer tail and a distinct grey belly. Its feet are also more delicate than its larger cousin’s.

BEHAVIOUR: The colonies of both these bats are characterized by a very strong, pungent odour. This late-evening bat, too, has a weak flight.

DISTRIBUTION: This species has a wider distribution than R. microphyllum, which is more adapted to desert conditions, but the two have a range that overlaps. Recorded from the states of Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Arunachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Odisha, Bihar and West Bengal.

HABITAT: It lives in caves, tunnels, disused buildings, and crevices in semi-arid regions (108-923 m).

Size: 5.5–7.3 cm,

IUCN Status: Least Concern 

EGYPTIAN FREE-TAILED BAT/Behaviour, Distribution, Habitat, Size, Weight, IUCN stetus

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DESCRIPTION: A medium-sized bat, smaller than Otomops but bigger than C. plicata, the Egyptian Free-tailed Bat is buff to dark brown dorsally and paler on the venter. Like all free-tailed bats it has a short, thick tail free of the membrane. The ears are large and fleshy, directed downwards, and the lips are wrinkled. It has hairy feet. It can be distinguished from C. plicata and Otomops by its colour and the ears not being connected.

BEHAVIOUR: Noisy bats, and roosts with unpleasant smell.

DISTRIBUTION: Southern and western India from Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and one record from West Bengal.

HABITAT: Varied. From moist to arid areas, cliffs, boulder overhangs, crevices in old buildings, rock faces and caves.

Size: 6.1–7.7 cm,

IUCN Status: Least Concern 

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